Kerala, a land of rivers and streams is perhaps the only state in south India with nearly 44 major rivers. Allappuzha, the Venice of the east, is part of a river-based eco-system, and it represents a mixed pattern of concentric sector-based multi-nuclei development. A different type of land terrain dominates some other districts. Thus, to develop Properties Kerala state always implemented area specific development plans for different regions.

In Kerala, three theoretical models of urban development, namely, concentric zone theory of Burgess (1927), the sector theory of Hoyt (1939) and the multi-nuclei theory of Harris and Ullman (1945) assume much importance. These theories provide the land-use and structural design guidelines for development of the urban landscape.

Models employed extensively to analyze urban geography was to aid the understanding of the urban land-use pattern and also to get a clear picture of the spatial structure and change both through critical consideration of their contact, and through the discussion of their limiting assumptions, or what they do not include.

Each theoretical perspective, and each form of urban model, sheds some light on the complex nature of the urban environment in the state. One of the limitations of the classical ecological models was their specific focus on an American city. Mann (1965) combined elements of the Burgess and Hoyt models in his model of a typical medium-sized British city. The other modification was proposed by Vance (1964) in his urban realms model, where the key element is the emergence of large self sufficient urban areas. Since the publication of the three classical models of urban land-use, many new forces areas have come to influence urban growth in the state like never before.